Pain during intercourse is an unwelcomed intrusion into an otherwise pleasurable experience. The pain may be related to a medical condition, an emotional response, or simply insufficient arousal. When pain is recurrent, a patient and their partner may struggle to maintain intimacy. Fear of sexual pain and stress often leads to decreased sexual frequency and increased emotional distance. Counseling is a vital part of the recovery from prolonged sexual pain. Treatment may also include gyneocological care from a medical provider and pelvic floor physical therapy, combined with sex counseling. Regardless of which partner has pain, both partners are affected, so whenever possible, couples are encouraged to participate in the counseling process together.